Manual testing

Accessibility testing can’t be accomplished with automation only. Keyboard and screen reader testing are important as well.

Some of the keyboard testing can be accomplished by:

Additionally, we test our applications with the Non-Visual Desktop Access (NVDA) screen reader to ensure our digital content is accessible for users using a screen reader. For mobile testing, we use VoiceOver on iOS devices and TalkBack on Android devices to ensure the application functions as intended for all users.

Desktop screen readers (Windows)

NVDA opens in a new page

Task Command
Turn on NVDA Control + Alt + N
Turn off NVDA Insert + Q
Stop reading Control
Start reading continuously from this point on Insert + DownArrow or Numpad Plus
Read next item Down Arrow
Read next focusable item (e.g. link, button) Tab
Activate link Enter
Activate button Enter or Space Bar
Go to next heading H
Go to next heading of level [1-6] 1-6
List all headings Insert + F7
Go to next landmark/region D
Show list of all links, headings, and landmarks Insert + F7
Go to next table T
Navigate table cells Ctrl + Alt + Arrow Keys
Go to next list L
Go to next list item I
Go to next graphic G
List all links Insert + F7
Go to next link K
Go to next unvisited link U
Go to next visited link V
Read entire foreground window (e.g. for dialogs) Insert + B
Announce title of the current foreground window Insert + T
Toggle between: radio buttons,<select> list items,tabs (ARIA widget),tree view items (ARIA widget),menu items (ARIA widget) Arrow Keys
Go back to previous heading, landmark, table, focusable item, etc. Shift + [H, D, T, Tab, etc.]

JAWS opens in a new page

Task Command
Go Back a Page Alt + Left Arrow or Backspace
Go Forward a Page Alt + Right Arrow
Read Address Bar Insert + A
Next Link Tab
Prior Link Shift + Tab
Open Link Enter
List Frames Insert + F9
List Links Insert + F7
List Headings Insert + F6
Heading at Level 1-6
Virtual HTML Features Insert + F3
JAWS Find Next and Previous F3 and Shift + F3
Assign Custom Label Control + Insert + Tab

Desktop screen readers (MacOS)


Task Command
Start (or stop) VoiceOver Command + F5
VoiceOver activation keys (or VO keys) Control + Option
Start reading VO + A
Stop reading Control
Open rotor VO + U
Activate link Enter or VO + Space Bar
Activate button Enter or Space Bar + VO + Space Bar
Read next/previous item VO + Right or Left Arrows
Go to next heading VO + Command + H
Go to next table VO + Command + T
Navigate table cells VO + Arrow Keys
Go to previous (heading, table, etc.) VO + Shift + Command + [H, T, etc.]
Interact with (go into/out of) objects (like iframes, menus, application regions, etc.) VO + Shift + Down/Up Arrows